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12thAnnual Meet on Pediatric Surgery and Pediatrics, will be organized around the theme “To overcome the challenges in Pediatric Surgery and encourage innovations for affordable healthcare”

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Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Subspecialties of pediatric surgery itself include: neonatal surgery and fetal surgery. Other areas of surgery also have pediatric specialties of their own that require further training during the residencies and in a fellowship: pediatric cardiothoracic (surgery on the child's heart and/or lungs, including heart and/or lung transplantation), pediatric nephrological surgery (surgery on the child's kidneys and ureters, including renal, or kidney, transplantation), pediatric neurosurgery (surgery on the child's brain, central nervous system, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves), pediatric urological surgery (surgery on the child's urinary bladder and other structures below the kidney necessary for ejaculation), pediatric emergency surgery, surgery involving fetuses or embryos (overlapping with obstetric/gynecological surgery, neonatology, and maternal-fetal medicine), surgery involving adolescents or young adults, pediatric hepatological (liver) and gastrointestinal (stomach and intestines) surgery (including liver and intestinal transplantation in children), pediatric orthopedic surgery (muscle and bone surgery in children), pediatric plastic and reconstructive surgery (such as for burns, or for congenital defects like cleft palate not involving the major organs), and pediatric oncological (childhood cancer) surgery. Common pediatric diseases that may require pediatric surgery includes: congenital malformations, abdominal wall defects, chest wall deformities, childhood tumors etc.
Pediatric cardiothoracic refers to the surgery on the child's heart and/or lungs, including heart and/or lung transplantation. Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation.
Children may require surgery for a wide array of digestive conditions (Esophageal atresia in newborns, Choledochal cysts etc),  malformations, and disorders, — ranging from appendicitis to tumors and more complex problems of the esophagus, liver, pancreas, stomach, and intestines. Other Pediatric Gastrointestinal surgery involves surgery to correct annorectal malformations and surgery for pediatric digestive cancers.
Pediatric Ophthalmology basically focuses on issues which affect the pediatric vision such as pediatric uveitis, genetic eye disease, developmental abnormalities and more. Pediatric ophthalmologists mainly concentrate on visual system and different eye disorders that disturb the vision in children. It is recommended to have regular vision screening of your child to avoid permanent vision damage. The initial symptoms include abnormal tilting, movements of the eye and improper alignment of both the eyes. Neonatal retina disorders occur when the retina malfunctions. Genetic Eye Disease is often and frequently inherited. Nystagmus is an involuntary, rhythmic oscillation of the eyes. The eye movements can be side-to-side, up and down or rotary. It may be present at birth or acquired later in life. Other disease includes: Pediatric Cataract, Pediatric Glaucoma, Retinopathy of Prematurity, Strabismus, Myopia, Nystagmus, Hyperopia, Developmental Abnormalities etc. Childhood Malignancies Congenital Cataract Congenital Glaucoma Nystagmus Strabismus Trauma Diagnostic & Screening
Pediatric oncology is the research and treatment of cancers in children and young adults. Pediatric oncologists study and train in both pediatrics and oncology. The types of cancers that develop in children are often different from cancers that develop in adults. Because of this, pediatric oncologists specialize in treating infants, children, young adults and teenagers who have cancer. Childhood cancers can develop as the result of DNA changes in cells that occur early in life, even before birth. Some adult cancers are linked to environmental or lifestyle factors. Cancers that occur in children are very rarely related to any type of environmental or lifestyle factor. Childhood cancers include:
Brain and spinal cord tumor (a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. The majority of childhood brain tumors are diagnosed and removed in surgery. These types of tumors account for about one-fourth of childhood cancers)
Leukemia (This cancer affects the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system. Leukemia accounts for almost one-third of all cancers in children.)
Lymphoma (There are two main types of this group of blood cancers that develop in the lymphatic system: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Both types of lymphoma occur in children, making up a combined 8 percent of childhood cancers.)
Neuroblastoma (This rare type of cancer nearly always affects children. Neuroblastoma develops from nerve cells in the fetus known as neuroblasts. Neuroblastoma can be inherited and these types of tumors usually develop in the adrenal glands.)
Other common childhood cancers include Wilms tumor, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Retinoblastoma and bone cancers such as Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.
Pediatric orthopedic surgeons diagnose, treat, and manage children’s musculoskeletal problems including the following: Limb and spine deformities (such as club foot, scoliosis), Gait abnormalities (limping), Bone and joint infections, Broken bones.
A child may need plastic and reconstructive surgery if he or she has a condition affecting the body’s appearance and function. Surgery may be recommended for children with congenital birth defects that affect the skull, face, hands, feet, or skin. This involves diagnosis and treatment in the following areas of expertise: The cleft lip or cleft palate experts effectively treat children born with cleft lips and palates, while our craniofacial specialists handle congenital and acquired deformities of the skull and facial bones. It includes diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the blood vessels of the skin. These are typically congenital disorders including hemangioma and arteriovenous malformation. It also involves the correction of physical defects—both congenital and acquired. Examples of procedures include burn reconstruction, ear reconstruction, tissue expansion for large birthmarks and correction of facial paralysis.
A pediatric dermatologist cares for children (newborns through adolescents) with skin disorders. They generally provide services like: Diagnosis of various skin conditions, including hemangiomas and other vascular birthmarks, pigmented birthmarks, and congenital skin disorders, eczema or atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, vitiligo, hives etc, Medical/prescription treatment for a wide variety of conditions affecting the skin, hair, and nails, Minor surgical procedures including skin biopsies, surgical removal of skin lesions and laser treatment of vascular birthmarks.
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. To maintain maternal health four elements are essential: prenatal care, skilled birth attendance with emergency backup, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care.
Neonatology is a subspecialty of Pediatrics that deals with infants who are ill or require special medical care due prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, birth defects.
 Birth Asphyxia is a medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a new-born infant during the birth process that usually affects the brain, whereas fetus death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy or during delivery is medially termed as Stillbirth. Premature birth is a birth that takes place more than three weeks (fewer than 37 weeks gestational age) before the baby's estimated due date. Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring are the monitoring techniques that are used immediately preceding or during childbirth. Structured intermittent auscultation is a technique that employs the systematic use of a Doppler assessment of fetal heart rate (FHR) during labor at defined timed intervals. Ultrasound/image guided fetal intervention is the method of manipulating the fetus without either an incision in the uterus, or an endoscopic view inside the uterus. The manipulation is done entirely under real-time cross-sectional view provided by the sonogram. Spina Bifida is a birth defect that occurs when the spine and spinal cord don't form properly and part of the spinal cord and its meninges are exposed through a gap in the backbone, thus to reduce the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes Fetoscopic repair of Spina Bifida is done.
Candidiasis is an infection caused by a species of the yeast belonging to genus Candida. There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans; the most common of which is Candida albicans. It can cause vaginal candidiasis, oral candidiasis and deep organ candidiasis. Conjunctivitis is a type of neonatal infection that affects the new-borns while they pass through the birth canal from a mother infected with either Neisseria gonorrhea or Chlamydia trachomatis during delivery. Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and is more common in the neonatal period .It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Sepsis specifically refers to the presence in a new-born baby of a bacterial blood stream infection. Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in new-borns. It usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. Neonatal stroke  is a disturbance in the blood supply to an infant's brain in the first 28 days of life. This includes both ischemic events, which result from the blockage of vessels, and haemorrhagic events, which result when the blood vessel ruptures and bleeds. Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects the infants and their body's ability to produce or use insulin .It is a monogenic (controlled by a single gene) form of diabetes that occurs in the first 6 months of life. Neonatal herpes simplex is a rare but serious condition, usually caused by vertical transmission of herpes simplex virus from mother to the new-born. Other infectious diseases includes:   Neonatal hypoglycaemia, Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy , Neonatal isoerythrolysis, diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis, benign neonatal hemangiomatosis, Neonatal cholestasis, Transient neonatal pustular melanosis, and Neonatal toxic shock-like exanthematous disease.
Cerebral Palsy is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood and is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance and posture. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) characterized by the necrosis (more often coagulation) of white matter near the lateral ventricles (is a form of white-matter brain injury). White matter damage can cause severe problems with motor coordination or organ function. Most frequent signs include delayed motor development, vision deficits, apneas, low heart rates, and seizures. Abnormal Brain Development begins long before the baby is born. It damages the developing nervous system or causes it to develop abnormally. Sometimes it's a genetic reason, or may be because of exposure to certain medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy that interferes with brain development. Intracranial Haemorrhage refers to any bleeding within the intracranial vault, including the brain parenchyma and surrounding meningeal spaces. Bilirubin encephalopathy is a rare neurological condition that occurs in some new-borns because of very high levels of bilirubin. If the level of bilirubin is very high, this can lead to brain damage and hearing loss. Acute intermittent porphyria is a genetic metabolic disorder affecting the production of haem, the oxygen-binding prosthetic group of haemoglobin. ADULT syndrome (Acro–dermato–ungual–lacrimal–tooth) is a rare genetic disease .It is an autosomal dominant form of ectodermal dysplasia, a group of disorders that affects the hair, teeth, nails, sweat glands. The syndrome arises from a mutation in the TP63 gene .Other disorders include: Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, Alexander disease, Alternating hemiplegia of childhood, Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome, Brunner syndrome, Aarskog–Scott syndrome, ABCD syndrome, Sickle-cell disease, Spinal muscular atrophy, Color blindness, Haemochromatosis, Autism, Alexander disease, Batten disease, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Leigh syndrome, Lysosomal storage disease, Neonatal encephalopathy etc.
Infant respiratory distress syndrome is caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Reactive airway disease is a group of conditions that include reversible airway narrowing due to external stimulations. Conditions within this group include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and viral upper respiratory infections. Bronchiolitis is the blockage of small airways in the lungs due to any viral infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus or human rhinovirus. Cyanosis is defined as a bluish discoloration, especially of the skin and mucous membranes, due to excessive concentration of deoxyhemoglobin in the blood cause by de-oxygenation.         
Other types of cyanosis includes: Peripheral cyanosis, Differential cyanosis, Central cyanosis. Other respiratory diseases are: Pneumothorax, Chronic Lung Disease, Meconium Aspiration, Apnea of Prematurity, Transient Tachypnea of the new-born, Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension, Bronco pulmonary dysplasia, Thromboembolism etc. Acute respiratory failure occurs when fluid build-up blocks the air sacs in lungs. Obstructive lung disease damages the lungs by narrowing the airways inside the lungs. Types of obstructive lung disease includes: asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Restrictive lung disease is chronic lung condition that limits the ability of a person's lungs to expand during inhalation. Pulmonary edema is the accumulation of fluid in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure. Other respiratory failures includes: Viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, fungal pneumonia, Spontaneous pneumothorax etc.
Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy. Prenatal nutrition has a strong influence on birth weight and further development of the infant. Neonatal nutrition involves the dietary needs of newborns and infants. Infant formula is available for babies whose mothers are unable to breastfeed. Breast milk contains antibodies that help the baby fight off viruses and bacteria. Breastfeeding lowers the baby's risk of having asthma or allergies. Babies who are breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months, without any formula, have fewer ear infections, respiratory illnesses, and bouts of diarrhoea. Maternal food uptake /maternal nutrition are vital during pregnancy and health of the offspring. Failure in supplying the adequate amount of nutrients to meet fetal demand can lead to fetal malnutrition. Essential fatty acids (ARA and DHA) are essential because it supports the brain, eye and nervous system development in the womb and during the first few years of life. Paediatric malnutrition encompasses both over-nutrition, associated with overweight and obesity and under nutrition, referring to multiple conditions including acute and chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Pediatric counterbalance diet ensures the uptake of food in the right proportions. Pediatric Food allergies  occur when the body's immune system overreacts to certain foods. Any food could cause a food allergy, but most of the food allergies are caused by Eggs, Peanuts, Soy, and Wheat etc. Eating disorders are caused by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health. These includes binge eating which is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes uncontrollable eating and anorexia nervosa where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight. Meal composition and variability also plays a major role in Nutrient deficiency disorders and chronic disease etc.
Placental hormones include human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL). Placental hormones such as HCG help in maintaining the corpus luteum during the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone is a hormone produced by the ovaries and later, if pregnancy occurs. In the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation, progesterone prepares the uterine lining (endometrium) to receive the fertilized egg. Human placental lactogen modifies the metabolic state of the mother during pregnancy to facilitate the energy supply of the fetus. Patients with childhood or adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced left ventricular mass (LVM) and ejection fraction (EF).Hormonal imbalance/balance is also involved in sexual development, pediatric obesity, metabolic activity etc. Thyroid is a common problem that causes over or under function of the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism describes excessive production of thyroid hormone. Non - inflammatory joint pains (osteoarthritis) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. Chronic recurring multifocal osteomyelitis / Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis, is a rare condition in which the bones have lesions, inflammation, and pain. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis is the most common type of arthritis in children under the age of 16.It can cause persistent joint pain, swelling and stiffness, growth problems, joint damage and eye inflammation.
Pediatric oncology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children whereas Haematology is the branch of medicine involving study and treatment of the blood. Pediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage many disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein. Haematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. Causes of haematuria are broad, ranging from urinary tract infection to kidney stones to bladder cancer. Glomerulonephritis is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).                                                                                                    
Renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage. Symptoms include: weight gain, feeling tired and foamy urine, blood clots, infections, and high blood pressure. Other diseases includes: Fluid and electrolyte problems, Systemic lupus erythematosis, Kidney stones, Proteinuria etc.
Developmental- behavioural pediatricians evaluate, counsel, and provide treatment for children, adolescents, and their families with a wide range of developmental and behavioural difficulties including: Learning disorders including dyslexia, writing difficulties, math disorders, and other school-related learning problems, Attention and behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and associated conditions including oppositional-defiant behavior, conduct problems, depression, and anxiety disorders, Tics, Tourette syndrome, and other habit disorders, Regulatory disorders including sleep disorders, feeding problems, discipline difficulties, complicated toilet-training issues, enuresis (bedwetting), and encopresis (soiling), Developmental disabilities including cerebral palsy, Spina bi fida, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and visual and hearing impairments, Delayed development in speech, language, motor skills, and thinking ability, Behavioral and developmental problems complicating the full range of pediatric chronic illnesses and disabling conditions (for example, genetic disorders, epilepsy, prematurity, diabetes, asthma, cancer).
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists’ help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review). Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences.
There are 6 components of the infectious disease process constituting chain of disease transmission i.e. the agent, its reservoir, its portal of exit, its mode of transmission, its portal of entry, susceptible host.
Immunization is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against a pathogen. Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly through vaccination. Immunization can be achieved in active or passive manner. Immunization schedule is designed to protect infants and children early in life when they are most vulnerable to various diseases. For example: After birth, the baby receives first dose of hepatitis B. After 1 to 2 months of age: Hepatitis B (Second dose), Polio, Diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough etc. After 4 to 6 months of age: Pneumococcal, polio, hepatitis B etc and so on.
The most common and serious vaccine-preventable diseases tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO) are: diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, hepatitis B, measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. The WHO lists 26 diseases for which vaccines are available.
A vaccine that is generally recommended may be medically inappropriate for a small number of people due to severe allergies or a damaged immune system. In addition, a vaccine against a given disease may not be recommended for general use in a given country, or may be recommended only to certain populations, such as young children or older adults.
Gut microbiome in specific, has become the main research interest in clinical, medical and microbiology fields to know up to which extent the gut microbiota sustain health and how its disruption might contribute to disease pathogenesis. A major role for the gut microbiota in liver disorders is also supported by the accumulating evidence that several complications of severe liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy are efficiently treated by various prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics. Genetics and genomics are beginning to strongly influence the care of patients from common disorders such as colorectal cancer, pancreatitis and liver cancer; to rare conditions like hereditary disorders. Hepatic stellate cells are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver, whose main functions is to store vitamin A and probably to maintain the normal basement membrane-type matrix. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in complications. Symptoms include: burning sensation in your chest, heartburn, vomiting etc. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine. Peptic ulcers include gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers. Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis .Other diseases include: Inflammatory Bowel disease (Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis) , Inguinal hernia in children , Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis ,  Constipation, Hirschsprung’s Disease ,  Lactose intolerance etc.