Immunization and Vaccination

Immunization is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against a pathogen. Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly through vaccination. Immunization can be achieved in active or passive manner. Immunization schedule is designed to protect infants and children early in life when they are most vulnerable to various diseases. For example: After birth, the baby receives first dose of hepatitis B. After 1 to 2 months of age: Hepatitis B (Second dose), Polio, Diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough etc. After 4 to 6 months of age: Pneumococcal, polio, hepatitis B etc and so on.
The most common and serious vaccine-preventable diseases tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO) are: diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, hepatitis B, measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. The WHO lists 26 diseases for which vaccines are available.
A vaccine that is generally recommended may be medically inappropriate for a small number of people due to severe allergies or a damaged immune system. In addition, a vaccine against a given disease may not be recommended for general use in a given country, or may be recommended only to certain populations, such as young children or older adults.

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