Neonatal Respiratory Diseases

Infant respiratory distress syndrome is caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Reactive airway disease is a group of conditions that include reversible airway narrowing due to external stimulations. Conditions within this group include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and viral upper respiratory infections. Bronchiolitis is the blockage of small airways in the lungs due to any viral infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus or human rhinovirus. Cyanosis is defined as a bluish discoloration, especially of the skin and mucous membranes, due to excessive concentration of deoxyhemoglobin in the blood cause by de-oxygenation.         
Other types of cyanosis includes: Peripheral cyanosis, Differential cyanosis, Central cyanosis. Other respiratory diseases are: Pneumothorax, Chronic Lung Disease, Meconium Aspiration, Apnea of Prematurity, Transient Tachypnea of the new-born, Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension, Bronco pulmonary dysplasia, Thromboembolism etc. Acute respiratory failure occurs when fluid build-up blocks the air sacs in lungs. Obstructive lung disease damages the lungs by narrowing the airways inside the lungs. Types of obstructive lung disease includes: asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Restrictive lung disease is chronic lung condition that limits the ability of a person's lungs to expand during inhalation. Pulmonary edema is the accumulation of fluid in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure. Other respiratory failures includes: Viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, fungal pneumonia, Spontaneous pneumothorax etc.

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